State Structure Principality of Liechtenstein

State Structure    
Principality of Liechtenstein

The Principality of Liechtenstein is a constitutional hereditary monarchy
constituted on a democratic and parliamentary basis.
The sovereign prince is the head of state.
The state structure is characterised through the dualism of the prince and the people.
Neither the monarchic nor the democratic principle dominates.
The prince and the people stand side by side on the same level.

Sovereign Prince 
The sovereign prince is the head of state. On 15 August 2004 His Highness Prince Hans-Adam II appointed his son, His Highness Prince Royal Alois as his representative and entrusted him with the exercise of all sovereign rights granted to him in accordance with the constitution. The Principality of Liechtenstein is a    constitutional hereditary monarchy    constituted on a democratic and parliamentary basis. The state authority is anchored in the princes and in the people, and is exercised by both in accord-ance with the constitution. The prince is the head of state and represents the   country out-wardly.

The Landtag (Parliament)
The rights and interests of the people are safeguarded through a 25-member Landtag. The Landtag is the parliament and lawgiver. The Landtag is the lawful body of the totality of the citizenry, and as such is authorised to safeguard and assert the rights and interests of the people in relation to the government according to the provisions of the constitution. The Liechtenstein Landtag is directly elected by the people in a proportional repre-  sentation electoral system. The Oberland constituency provides 15 representatives and the Unterland constituency provides 10 representatives. The Landtag is con-vened and adjourned by the princes. The    princes are also entitled to dissolve the parliament for substantial reasons. Legislation is the main task of the Landtag. The following topics mainly belong to the efficacy of the Landtag: The constitutional participation in the legislation. The participation in the conclusion of state treaties. The stipulation of annual preliminary budgets and the approval of taxes and other public impositions. The adoption of resolutions concerning        credits, sureties and loans at the expense of the country as well as concerning the purchase and sale of state goods. The adoption of resolutions concerning the annual report to be prepared by the government on the entire state admin-istration. The filing of applications, lodg-ing of complaints and controls pertaining to the state administration. Filing charges before the constitutional court against members of the government due to violation of the constitution or other laws. The adoption of resolutions concerning a vote of no-confidence against the government or one of its members. The right of propos-al with regard to the appointment of the government - which has to be made in agreement between the prince and the Landtag - falls under the jurisdiction of the Landtag.
The Government
According to the constitution, the government is a collegial body. It consists of the head of government and four senior exec-utive officers. The head of government and the senior executive officers are appointed by the sovereign princes in agreement with the Landtag’s proposal. In the same manner, one representative (each) is appointed for the head of gov-ernment and the senior executive officers. The respectively appointed representative represents the concerned member of government in the event they are pre-vented from attending the sessions of the collegial government. At the proposal of the Landtag, one of the senior executive officers will be appointed by the prince sovereign as deputy head of government. Only native-born Liechtenstein citizens who fulfil the eligibility prerequisites for the Landtag are eligible for election to the government. The two Liechtenstein electoral districts - Oberland and Unterland - have the right to at least two government members. The representatives of the government members must always come from the same electoral district. The collegial government’s term of offices amounts to four years. Within the government the matters of business are divided according to departments. The head of government is the chairman of the committee; he is entitled to only one vote, just like the remaining government members.